ISSN: 1998 - 4162

JISR - Management and Social Sciences & Economics Journal Contents

Volume 17, Number 2, July 2019


Dear Readers,

It is an honor for us to contribute to academia by publishing JISR-MSSE, a biannual research journal in the field of Management Sciences, Social Sciences and Economics. The journal enjoys being recognized in the prestigious “Y” category by HEC and is striving to be upgraded to an even more prestigious “X” category. The multidisciplinary journal welcomes contributions from people in academia, be it faculty or research scholars, as well as industry experts. The current issue contains papers from diverse fields that contribute to society.

The first paper titled, “Safety Preparedness in the Textile Sector of Pakistan” investigates the occupational health and safety (OHS) status and emergency preparedness of textile industries in the Korangi Industrial Area (KIA) of Karachi, Pakistan. The study shows that there are  apparent differences between top management, middle management, and lower management viewpoints about their organization’s preparedness status against emergencies and OHS parameters. Senior management consider themselves satisfied with the current state, whereas middle and lower management staff find themselves at higher risks of occupational injuries and hazards. It is concluded by the study that textile firms consider practical approaches and OHS policies to ensure appropriate implementation and improved status of emergency preparedness and OHS status.

The second paper, titled “Exploring Environmental Sustainability Practices in Pakistani SMEs,” examines the environmental sustainability practices of Small and Medium-size Enterprises (SMEs) in Pakistan. The focus of this study is on the ecological dimension of sustainability. A qualitative study from 30 manufacturing SMEs suggests that most of the firms have measurable targets for reducing waste, energy, water, and carbon. As in Pakistan, there is an energy crisis, and most of the industries have shut down due to the energy crises. Another vital issue for the majority of industrial estates is  the scarcity of water. To reduce air pollution, most of the medium firms are trying to protect the air from pollution, whereas small firms are less concerned about air pollution. Similarly, very few medium-size (Food, Steel, Pharmaceutical) firms recycle the wastewater and reuse it, While none of the small firms recycles the water. Most SMEs are utilizing power factor for energy saving due to severe energy shortage in the country. The study indicates a bleak outlook regarding the implementation of environmental sustainability practices in small firms. The third paper of this issue titled, “Occupational Health Injuries and Safety Management Among Internal Migrant Workers in Pakistan: Challenges and Prospects” focuses on occupational injuries and safety management at the workplace In this study, index value trends of occupational injuries of internal migrant workers for different characteristics is developed. The research findings suggest that migrant workers in the labor markets of Pakistan face an ample burden of occupational injuries. Male migrants are more vulnerable to occupational injuries compared to their female counterparts. Similarly, those who migrate to rural areas are more likely to suffer from occupational injuries than those whose destination is urban. Higher education and on-job trainings are expected to reduce the burden of occupational injuries among internal migrants. The analysis calls for the development of synergies among worker's education, on-job training, and safety management at the workplace. This is the first study with an extensive dataset range to analyze the level and trends of occupational injuries and safety management of internal migrants in Pakistan. The research suggests the implementation of existing laws and legislation of new health policies to cope up with the challenges of occupational injuries of migrants.

The fourth paper, titled “Relationship between Foreign Direct Investment & Financial Market Development - Evidence from South Asian Markets,” focuses upon the relationship between FDI and financial market development (FMD) in the existence of other aspects, i.e., governance, social, and macroeconomic variables. The study uses the annual panel data of four emerging South Asian countries, i.e., Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka, from 1994 to 2016. Panel ARDL model is used to examine the long run and short-run relationship, while correlation and causality analysis is used to explore the relationship between FDI and FMD variables. Results show that exchange rate, governance, inflation, and real GDP growth rate are the significant predictors of FDI in South Asian countries, while FDI, education, real GDP growth rate, balance, exchange rate, and inflation are the main determinants of FMD. A positive correlation exists between FDI and FMD variables. However, bi-directional causality exists between CREDIT and FDIGDP, while no causality exists between CCB and FDIGDP; however, one-way causality exists from STKMKRTCAP and STKVOLTRA to FDIGDP. The study suggests that countries having better governance have an edge in attracting FDI to the country.

The fifth paper of this issue, titled "Fuzzy Based Principal’s Leadership Skills Assessment Model for Secondary Schools,” suggests the use of a fuzzy inference system (FIS) model to assess the leadership skills of secondary school principals. To determine the principals’ leadership skills, teachers’ perceptions of these skills concerning various items are collected Further, these values are categorized into linguistic variables that are used as input in a fuzzy inference system to get an overall principal leadership skills score. The implementation of the said model for a secondary school in Pakistan highlighted weaknesses in leadership skills, which may need proper planning to enhance these skills. This FIS model acts as a device to help the policymakers in judging several components of leadership in those institutes in which they are serving. This study implies that school principals would be more effective if they possess leadership skills. The skills would enable them to turn schools into effective schools.

Paper number six in the issue is titled "Impact of Overconfidence on Investor’s Investment Decision: Moderating Role of Risk Perception and Religiosity-A Survey of Pakistan Stock Exchange,”. The paper explores impact of overconfidence on investor’s investment decisions and to know whether risk perception and religiosity moderately affect the relationship between the overconfidence and investor’s investment decision. Statistical results indicate a significant impact of overconfidence on investor’s investment decisions. For the moderating part of the model, however, there is no empirical evidence of religiosity and risk perception as a moderating effect. Thus, the study depicts that there is an impact of overconfidence on investor’s investment decisions, but there is no moderating impact of religiosity & risk perception. The review is useful for the brokers, investors in making decisions regarding the buying and selling of stocks, and also for entrepreneurs. This study is also exclusive and has greater importance as the role of religiosity and risk perception does not imply together before in the Pakistani stock market. The current research is also constructive for the scholars to further study the impact in a different context with further modified variables.

The seventh paper in this issue focuses on Malaysian higher educational institutions and is titled “The impact of lean practices on Educational Performance: An Empirical Investigation for Public Sector Universities of Malaysia.” The paper determines the probable advantages of lean approaches in the public sector of Malaysia. Three methods are selected for the study, “total quality management (TQM), 5’s services and quick change over”. The results reveal that all three approaches positively and significantly enhanced the educational performance of Malaysia. This study  helps the administrators of the universities to understand better how they can reduce their work; build their operations more effectively and efficiently. There is a necessity to examine other approaches and conduct a qualitative study to discover the lean management in the educational system in Malaysia.

The eighth paper of the issue titled "Analyzing the Role of Trade Openness in Economic Growth of Pakistan,” focuses on trade to GDP ratio as a proxy variable for trade openness to examine its effect on the growth of Pakistan. The finding of this study does not reveal any considerable impact of trade liberalization during 1972-2016 on the growth of the Pakistan economy. The study concludes its premise based on empirical results that  economies  having a comparative advantage in trade with significant competitiveness usually benefit from liberalization, export promoting, and diversifying policies. The trading partners of Pakistan were and are mostly Western countries that have the comparative advantage of trade over Pakistan. Therefore, the government of Pakistan needs to promote & diversify its exports to those countries in which Pakistan has a comparative advantage in the international market. Ninth paper in this issue titled “The Role and Impact of China’s Trade Internationalization: A Paradigm Shift in the World Economy” also falls in the domain of Economics and international trade and presents and reviews the growth in China’s business in the context of the global economy. Based on the study, it can be concluded that China has caused a paradigm shift in the global economy through its trade-centered policies. Its dominance is primarily attributed to the encouragement of local investors and promoting trade and products through a policy of minimizing barriers to openness. It is also observed that China’s economy has been more stable in recessionary times and has a strong correlation with total world trade import and export volume.

Paper number ten in the issue titled “Impact of Mother’s Teaching Profession on Children’s Growth: A Study on Teaching Mothers in Metropolis City of Pakistan” explores the after-effects of mothers’ professional workload on the early growth of their children, training, and performance. It is evident from this research’s statistical analysis that previous trends about mothers’ employment are changing, and nowadays mothers specially engaged with teaching profession are not only contributing to the country’s economy but also playing an essential role as a mother by managing children’s development as proficiently as household mothers. Paper number eleven explores the impact of reward on job satisfaction. The paper is titled “Impact of Reward on Job Satisfaction and Employee Intention to Leave: A Study of Private Organization’s Employees of Karachi” and  examines various aspects of reward that improve employee job satisfaction and reduce the intention to leave. The research endorses the presence of a relationship between identified items and their corresponding constructs, and employees "Job Satisfaction" and "Intention To Leave." The findings of this research augment the knowledge base  aspects of "Reward" that can improve employees' satisfaction with the rate of retention Another interesting paper of this issue is the twelfth paper titled “A Review of the ‘Speech Learning Model’ in the Perspectives of Learners of English in Pakistan.” The article reports an experiment in which the production of English plosives by advanced Pakistani learners was studied in the light of predictions of speech learning model (SLM). The results show that the learners equate aspirated and unaspirated allophones of English labial and coronal stops with the unaspirated stops of their L1. However, they maintain a difference between two allophones of English velar stops. Some participants also increase VOT of the unaspirated allophones of English stops to a level that is larger than the native VOT range. The directionality of learning is from dorsal to labial to coronal. The acquisition of accurate VOT of English coronal stops is found to be more difficult for Pakistani learners because they substitute English alveolar stops with retroflex stops of their L1. The findings of this study also point out some gaps in the SLM based on which revisions are suggested in the SLM.

Thirteenth paper in the issue is a focus on job burnout effect and is titled “Organizational commitment and job burnout effect on turnover intention among private hospitals in Karachi,” the paper investigates the magnitude of burnout that affects the employees. The study also finds the mediating effect of organizational commitment in a relationship of job burnout and turnover intention. The research constructs job burnout, and its dimension namely: cynicism, emotional exhaustion, and professional efficacy, have a direct effect on turnover intention. The organizational commitment along with its three constructs including affective commitment, continuous commitment, and normative commitment, have a mediating influence in a relationship of job burnout and turnover intention. Job burnout level among employees of the healthcare sector also has a direct influence on organizational commitment.

The final paper of this issue titled, “The Impact of Institutional Investment Horizon on Corporate Governance and Firm Performance,” examines  the impact of institutional investors in corporate governance and market measure firm performance mechanism. The study classifies the financial institutions in terms of their investment horizon on the bases of their long or short-term investment objectives in the investee companies. The results of the study confirm the positive impact of institutional investors (as a homogenous group) in enhancing the corporate governance and firms’ performance mechanism in the light of agency and signaling theories. However, when the financial institutions are analyzed on the bases of their investment horizon, the empirical results deviated from the previous predicted theoretical findings. The research further concludes that long investment horizon institutional investors play a positive role in improving corporate governance index and Tobin’s Q; however, short investment horizon institutional are found detrimental for both the corporate governance and performance mechanism in Pakistani firms. The current research is unique in the context of the emerging economies, as it gives the response to previous contradictory opinions about the role of financial institutions in firm performance and corporate governance mechanism. Moreover, the research is also useful for individual investors, corporate managers and regulatory authorities for a better understanding of this phenomenon.        

We hope the research articles published in our journal will benefit academicians and researchers. Looking forward towards positive feedback from the research community.

Yours sincerely,


Dr. Muhammad Kashif,


SZABIST, Karachi.

August 23, 2019

DISCLAIMER: All views expressed in the journal are those of the authors and not necessarily reflect the policies or preferences of JISR-MSSE or SZABIST.